低体温パッケージの作り方

さあ、秋の登山シーズン到来です。夏の蒸し蒸しした暑さがなくなり、気持ちの良い天気が続きますよね。ところが、秋山で気をつけなくてはならないのが、突然の気温の低下や降雪です。夏の気持ちで、防寒対策もしっかりせずに山に入ると、思わぬとこで低体温のリスクが待ち構えています。

低体温は、一度症状が出ると、ドミノ倒しのように問題が深刻化するとても怖い問題です(詳しくは低体温の記事)。そこで、いち早くこのドミノ倒しを止めるテクニックの一つが低体温パッケージ。今回は、低体温パッケージの作り方を詳しく紹介します。


目次

・低体温パッケージに必要な装備
・VPUの傷病者を低体温パッケージに入れる方法
・3人低体温パッケージ


低体温パッケージに必要な装備

1)防水シート:一番外側で、防水、防風の役割をします。もし雨、風がない場合でも、対流による体温放出を防ぐために、外気とシャットアウトする役割があります。タープ、グランドシートなどが利用できます。

2)スリーピングパッド:防水シートの内側に敷き、伝導による体温放出を防ぎます。

3)寝袋:保温、保湿の役割があります。傷病者が濡れていない場合は、直接寝袋に入れることもできます。傷病者が濡れている場合に、直接寝袋に入れると、気化熱で体温が奪われ、低体温が深刻化します。

4)レスキューシート(もしくは防水シート):体温の放射を防ぎ、保温性を高めます。レスキューシートには防水性もあるので、濡れている傷病者をそのまま包みます。もし、ジャケットがバリバリに凍っていても、ジャケット脱がさずに、そのままレスキューシートでくるみます。

5)ウォーターバック:可能であればウィーターバックにお湯を入れて、傷病者を加温します。ただし、直接傷病者に当てると低温火傷になったり、中度以上の低体温傷病者を加熱することはできません。詳しくは詳しくは低体温を参照してください。


VPUの傷病者を低体温パッケージに入れる方法

傷病者に意識があれば、自分で低体温パッケージに入ってもらうことができますが、意識がない傷病者に対しては、脊椎保護のログロールを応用してパッケージします。

低体温が原因で意識がない傷病者は、心筋が電気的に不安定なため、衝撃を与えたり、急に加温すると、心停止の可能性があります。傷病者はできるだけ丁寧に扱い、低体温パッケージに入れます。


3人低体温パッケージ

現実的に、もし低体温の症状がでたら、活動を中止して、テントに避難することになるでしょう。低体温パッケージに包んだからといって、そのまま外気に曝しておく救助者はあまりいませんよね。テントでの停滞と回復を決定した時に、有効な方法が救助者との3人低体温パッケージです。

1)傷病者は一人で寝袋に入れます。
2)救助者2つの寝袋を繋ぎ合わせ、真ん中に傷病者を挟みます。
3)救助者は傷病者に出来る限り体を密着させて、救助者の体温でゆっくりと加温します。
4)傷病者の寝袋の上から湯たんぽを当ててあげることも有効です。

意識がある傷病者は、回復して再び低温状況になる問題を解決できれば、活動の再開が可能です。この処置をするためにも、一緒に山にいく仲間とは、 常に良好な関係を維持しておきたいものですね。


低体温の処置は低体温パッケージだけではありません。正しい低体温の理解にはデジタルハンドブックを参照してくだい。正しく低体温パッケージを行うためにはWFA/WFRコースに参加してトレーニングを受け、SOAPノートに基づいた低体温の評価と処置が必要です。

 

 

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